Riley County/Manhattan Timeline 1811-2009

Prepared by the Staff of the Riley County Historical Museum
with the assistance of Lowell Jack.

Additions and corrections to this timeline will be appreciated.

1811                 Major George Sibley visits the Kanza Blue Earth Village (This village was located between the Kansas and Blue Rivers, about 4 miles east of Manhattan.)

1819                 Artist Samuel Seymour, part of Major Long's expedition, makes a sketch of the interior of a Kanza lodge at the Kanza Blue Earth Village.  This is the earliest surviving picture known of Kansas.

1825     6/3       The Kanza Nation cedes twenty million acres of land and settles in a defined area centered by their Blue Earth Village.

1827 - 1830       Kanza Nation departs from the Blue Earth Village.

1842                 John C. Fremont visits the vicinity of what becomes Manhattan

1853                 Samuel Dyer runs government ferry at Juniata.

1853                 Camp Center renamed Fort Riley.

1854     5/30      Kansas Nebraska Act becomes law, creating the Territory of Kansas and officially opening the Territory to legal settlement.

1854                 George S. Park establishes Poliska.

1854                 S.D. Houston, J.M. Russell, S.W. Johnson, and E.M. Thurston establish Canton at base of Bluemont Hill.

1854                 Pawnee, 1st Territorial Capital built.

1854                 First house in Riley County built by Thomas Reynolds.

1854                 First settlers in Zeandale Township take claims.

1855     3/24      Isaac Goodnow and party arrive.

1855     4/6       Town of Boston formed from Poliska, Canton and Goodnow's New England Emigrant Aid Society group.

1855     4/22      Ashland colony established south of Manhattan.

1855     6/1        Steamboat Hartford (Cincinnati and Kansas Land Co.) runs aground near  Boston settlement.

1855     7/4        Hartford group joins Boston settlement, town renamed Manhattan.

1855     8/25      Riley County organized.

1855     9/7        First Manhattan settler death, G.W. Barnes, from typhoid fever.

1855     9/17      First birth to Manhattan settlers, Irving Roscoe Lovejoy, to Charles and Julia Lovejoy.

1856     Jan.      First marriage in county: Thomas Platt and Sally Pipher.

1856     2/26      Government bridge at Juniata swept away by flood.

1856                 Blue River established as border between Riley and Pottawatomie Counties.

1856     3/20      Ogden Post Office established.

1856     4/2        Riley County divided into four townships: Ogden, Dyer, Pierce, Manhattan.

1856     4/28      Arrival of Beecher Bible and Rifle Company at Wabaunsee

1856     8/6        First recorded deed in Riley County (land sold by W.M. Shain to Lewis Johnson.)

1856     8/8        Randolph Post Office established (closed 2/29/1960, reopened 1964.)

1856     9/4        Manhattan Post Office established.

1857     2/10      Ogden Town Company incorporated.

1857     2/14      Manhattan becomes a 3rd Class City.

1857     2/14      Manhattan Institute incorporated.

1857                 Zeandale post office established.

1857                 First school building erected, at 9th and Poyntz.

1857                 First church erected in the county, the Methodist Episcopal at Juliette and Pierre.

1857                 Amanda Arnold employed to teach spring school term.

1857     5/30      First Manhattan city officers elected; A.J. Mead, mayor; ten member city council.

1858                 Bacheller (later called Milford) incorporated in Riley County.

1858     1/20 (1/30?) Manhattan becomes county seat after a disputed election.

1858     2/9        Bluemont Central College incorporated by Kansas legislature, signed by Gov.  Denver.  (Baker University and Highland College were also incorporated at that time.)

1859     2/7        City of Ogden incorporated.

1859     5/10      Bluemont College cornerstone laid.

1859     5/15      Tornado hits Manhattan, takes roof off the newly constructed Congregational Church and damages homes and businesses.

1859     5/21      Manhattan's first newspaper The Kansas Express is published by Charles Francis De Vivaldi. (first paper was printed in Wyandotte, KS)

1859     5/26      Horace Greeley visits Manhattan.

1859     6/24      Steamboat Col. Gus Linn arrives in Manhattan.

1859     10/6      The federal land office at Ogden is moved to Junction City.

1859                 Manhattan is a stop on the Leavenworth and Pikes Peak Express Company route to the Colorado gold fields.

1859                 Manhattan House Hotel is built.

1860     1/9        Bluemont Central College opened.  Joseph Denison is the first President.

1860                 Drouth in Kansas.

1860                 Manhattan passes ordinance prohibiting swine from running at large.

1860                 35 acres purchased from C.J. Lewis for Manhattan cemetery.  Juliette Lovejoy Whitehorn is the first interment.

1861                 Manhattan boundaries defined by state act.

1861                 First Kansas Cavalry organized.

1861                 S.D. Houston elected first state senator from Riley County.

1862                 Morrill Act passes making land grant for colleges possible.

1862                 Isaac Goodnow elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

1863     9/2        First term of Bluemont College begins.

1863     Fall       Last buffalo in area killed near Ogden.

1864     Nov.      Presidential election; 220 Republicans and 51 Democrats vote.

1866     Aug.     Kansas Pacific Railroad completed to Blue River east bank.

1866                 Pontoon bridge built at the foot of Poyntz.

1866                 Riley Countian Nehemiah Green elected Lt. Governor.

1867     4/24      Earthquake shakes area.  The earthquake was between Wamego and Manhattan and was the largest in Kansas recorded (as of 2007) and registered between 5.2 and 5.5 .

1867     Sept.    Susan B. Anthony speaks in Manhattan.

1868                 Milford Township organized.

1868                 Bacheller name changed to Milford.

1868                 Nehemiah Green becomes governor following Gov. S.J. Crawford's resignation.

1868                 James M. Harvey, Riley County, elected governor.

1868                 Riley County population 5,104; Manhattan 1,173.

1870                 Grant Township organized.

1871                 Zeandale Township transferred from Wabaunsee to Riley Co.

1871                 South Milford Township organized.

1871                 Bridges over Blue and Kansas Rivers completed.

1871                 Mayday Township organized.

1872                 Work starts on the Manhattan and Northwestern Railroad.

1872                 Name of Milford Township changed to Bala Township.

1872                 Presidential election; 1,055 Republicans, and 338 Liberals vote.

1873                 John A. Anderson becomes second president of K.S.A.C.

1873                 Ashland Township transferred from Davis to Riley County.

1874                 James M. Harvey chosen U.S. Senator.

1874     Aug.     Huge grasshopper invasion.

1875                 Population of Riley County, 7,066.

1875                 Earthquake strikes area.

1876     Nov.     Presidential election; 1,133 Republican, 223 Democrat, 65 Greenback.

1877                 Prof. William Kedzie built first telephone system at college.

1878                 John A. Anderson elected to Congress.

1879                 Great cyclone hits northern part of Riley County.

1879                 Swede Creek Township organized.

1879                 Fancy Creek Township organized.

1880                 Manhattan becomes a City of Second Class.

1880     10/10    New Methodist Episcopal Church in Manhattan dedicated.

1880                 Presidential election: 1,484 Republican, 376 Democrat, and 347 Greenback. 1,178 for the Prohibition Amendment, 828 opposed. John A. Anderson re-elected to Congress.

1880                 Riley County population, 10,476, Manhattan, 2,104.

1880                 Right of way secured for Burlingame, Alma and Manhattan Railroad.

1881     2/15      Alembic Post Office established.

1881     9/8        No child under age 7 allowed to attend Manhattan schools due to over crowding.

1882     6/28      Leonardville Post Office established.

1887                 Fairmont Addition develops.

1888                 Riley County population, 15,000, Manhattan 4,500.

1888                 First Manhattan Water Works built, 3rd and Ratone.

1889     May      Secretary of War visits Ft. Riley.

1890                 Incandescent electric lights turned on in downtown Manhattan streets, January 1st.

1894                 Wareham and Wood awarded telephone exchange contract.

1895     10/31    Two earthquakes hit area.

1900     4/30      100 businessmen form a Commercial Club.

1900                 Population of city is 3,438, K.S.A.C. enrollment 1,321.

1901                 City houses were numbered and street names posted so door to door mail delivery could begin.

1901                 City water switches from Blue River to wells.

1901                 C.P. Dewey's Manhattan Beach/Eureka Lake Resort opened.

1902     April     First automobile in Manhattan hits the streets; a delivery wagon.

1902                 Union Pacific depot built.

1902                 First golf course built in Manhattan in City Park.

1903                 Theodore Roosevelt visits Manhattan.

1903     5/29      Early June brings a major flood.

1903                 New city hall/fire station opened on North 3rd Street near Humboldt.

1904                 Andrew Carnegie gives $10,000 to start library.

1906                 Riley County Courthouse built at cost of $50,000; citizens contribute $1,000 for tower clock.

1906     1/7        Earthquake hits Manhattan.

1906     2/21      IOOF/Rebekah buys the Eureka Lake Manhattan Beach Resort and the first resident in the Old Folks Building (the former Manhattan Beach Hotel) is admitted.

1906     3/1        Prairie fire swept over 2,000 acres of the Fort Riley reservation.  Adjoining farms saved by backfires.

1906     4/26      The Rebekah state assembly and the I.O.O.F. dedicate their home for orphans at Eureka Lake near Manhattan.

1906     5/26      The first annual college track meet in Kansas held at the Topeka fairgrounds.  K.S.A.C. wins first place with 58 points.  Other schools entered: Emporia Normal, College of Emporia, Fairmont, Cooper, St. Mary's and Washburn.

1906     7/4        The Populist party state convention at Topeka nominates their ticket, including Robert Hauserman, Riley County, Secretary of State.

1906     10/24    James W. Forsyth, major general of the U.S. Army dies at Columbus, Ohio.  He was commandant at Fort Riley several years, and was called the "military pet of the Sunflower state."  He left Kansas in 1894.

1907     2/9       The Supreme Court dismisses the Dewey-Berry case which had been postponed through five successive terms of the Norton County district court.  Chauncey Dewey and two of his men had killed three members of the Berry family in a fight over a water tank.  Feeling was strong against the Deweys who had foreclosed mortgages and bought up tax titles, thus acquiring an 80,000 acre ranch in northwest Kansas.

1907     April,    New Parkview Hospital built and occupied.

1907     10/5      Olive-drab uniforms issued at Fort Riley.  They were "destined to do away with the old blue uniforms throughout the army."

1907     10/17    Fort Riley selected as the site for a $42,000 army balloon plant.

1907     11/25    John G. Haskell, State Architect, 1866-1874, who designed the State House, dies at his home in Lawrence.  (Haskell designed a number of buildings in Manhattan.)

1908     June     Flood.

1908                 Rocky Ford Dam and Power Plant built.

1909                 First trolley car runs made from Union Pacific depot to campus.

1910                 Brick factory opens to produce up to 20,000 bricks daily for sidewalks and homes.

1910                 Poyntz Avenue paved from Blue River to Courthouse.

1910                 Population of Manhattan 6,300.

1910                 Manhattan has 60 miles of paved streets.

1910                 Marshall Theatre opens downtown.

1911                 Nichols Gymnasium built on the K.S.A.C. campus.

1912                 Trolley service to Eureka Lake Electric Park, Ft. Riley, and Junction City begins.

1913                 Manhattan population, 7,000; K.S.A.C. has 3,000 students.

1913                 New sanitary sewer built at cost of $87,000 and outhouses begin to disappear as 10-12 houses hook on daily.

1913                 New high school built at cost of $90,000 at Poyntz and 10th.

1914     10/13    Dedication of the new fire proof Juvenile Building at the Rebekah-Odd Fellows Home of Kansas at Eureka Lake.

1915                 Flood makes changes in Blue River; moves from east end of Poyntz to current juncture with Kansas River.

1915                 Aggieville Club formed by 23 business owners.

1916     11/26    Fire destroys the Old Peoples' building at the Rebekah-Odd Fellows Home of Kansas at Eureka Lake.  This was the former Manhattan Beach Hotel at the Manhattan Beach Resort.  There was one death in that fire.

1917                 Manhattan Country Club formed on Bluemont Hill.

1917     April     New York Giants play the Detroit Tigers on the College field.  Notables such as John McGraw stay at the Gillett Hotel.

1917     6/8       First Division U.S. Army established.

1917                 Delta Chapter of Phi Beta Sigma founded at K.S.A.C.  This is the first chapter of Phi Beta Sigma (which was founded at Howard University in 1914) established on a racially mixed campus west of the Mississippi River.  Delta Chapter closed in 1930.

1918     Feb.     Ogden City gets electricity.

1918     April     St. Louis Cardinals and Chicago White Sox play exhibition baseball games against the Camp Funston all stars at the baseball field in Army City.

1918     7/14      Community House dedicated as recreation building for the military.  Built with funds from Rotary Club and the city.

1918                 Sixty thousand men stationed at Camp Funston.

1918                 Manhattan adopts prohibition against sale or free distribution of cigarettes.

1918                 First community swimming pool, privately owned, opens at Pierre and 4th Street.

1919     4/10      Riley County Bar Association founded.

1919                 New Junior High School opened at Poyntz and 9th Street next to High School.

1919     10/13    New Old Peoples' Building dedicated at the Rebekah-Odd Fellows Home of Kansas at Eureka Lake.

1920                 Manhattan population 7,485; K.S.A.C. enrollment 3,017.

1921                 Huge K on Prospect Hill built by K.S.A.C. engineering students.

1921     May      Special election passes for a water softening and purification plant.

1922                 3,500 motor licenses sold in Riley County.

1923                 West wing of K.S.A.C. Memorial Stadium built.

1924                 East wing of Memorial Stadium built.

1924                 Manhattan Business College closes its doors.

1925                 Telephone cables on 4th Street go from overhead to underground.

1925                 Work starts on telephone exchange building at 4th Street and Humboldt. (Courthouse Plaza East county office building as of 2007.)

1925                 J. L. Johns opens creamery on 3rd Street; produces first pasteurized milk in Manhattan.

1926                 150 room Wareham Hotel completed.

1926                 Eugene University of Eugene, Oregon-later to become Manhattan Christian College-opens. 

1928                 Manhattan trolley system discontinued.

1928     July      First full time Fire Chief installed in Manhattan.

1930     9/18      Local team plays the Kansas City Monarchs.

1930                 Concrete S added to Prospect Hill.

1930                 Junior Chamber of Commerce established.

1930                 K.S.A.C. enrollment 4,800.

1930                 Manhattan has 2 railroads, 3 bus lines, 2 daily and 2 weekly newspapers, 2 hospitals, 4 theatres and 222 rooms in 3 hotels.

1931     3/9        Kansas State Agricultural College name changed to Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. (K.S.C.)

1931     March   First Girl Scout troop established in Manhattan.

1933     July      Sunset Zoo established.

1935     6/4        Flood water extends13 blocks west from the rivers and surrounds a third of Manhattan homes.

1936                 Griffith Field built as WPA project.

1936                 Charlotte Swift Hospital purchased by Sisters of St. Joseph. Name changed to St. Mary Hospital.

1937                 Pillsbury Drive bridge replaces bridge taken out by 1935 flood.

1938                 New white way street lights downtown.

1938     Nov.      20,000 attend Kansas State College 75th Anniversary.

1939     7/15      Jesse Owens appeared at Griffith Field in Manhattan.

1939                 City Park and Douglass swimming pools built through WPA projects.

1940     11/22    110 acre Airport dedicated.

1940                 Population 11,659, K.S.C. enrollment 4,910.

1942                 Two community centers open for the military, known in 2007 as Douglass Center and the Community House.  The Douglass Center was for African American troops, the Community House for white troops.

1944                 K.S.C. student numbers drop to 3,786 because of World War II.

1944                 Community Chest of Manhattan established.

1946                 Housing units for veterans set up in Goodnow Park.

1946                 Viking Manufacturing plant built, 1635 Yuma. (Ag Press as of 2007)

1949                 Riley County completes its first Zoning Master Plan.

1950     2/19      Tower for new radio station KMAN erected.  The station began broadcasting 6/4.

1950     7/1        Hail storm with 3 to 4 inch stones causes significant damage to Riley County.

1950                 Airport runways expanded and lengthened.

1950                 K.S.C. enrollment 6,867.

1950     12/9      New K.S.C. Field House opened.  First basketball game played in Wildcat Field House, later named Ahearn Field House. K-State 66, Utah 56.

1950                 Manhattan population 19,056; K-State enrollment 5,907.

1951                 Riley County institutes first zoning outside of the City of Manhattan.

1951                 City government changes to City Manager/5 member commission.

1951     June     Worst flood in city's history covers 220 blocks and puts 6 feet of water downtown, $20 million damage.

1951                 Luckey High School opened.

1952                 Airport runways strengthened and lengthened.

1952                 Construction begins on Tuttle Creek Dam.

1952                 Manhattan selected as All American City for recovery efforts after '51 flood.

1952                 Sears store built on southeast corner of 4th and Houston.

1953                 Scheduled airline service started by Continental.

1954     6/10      Riley County Hospital opens with 100 beds.

1954                 Kansas Farm Bureau opens new state office headquarters on Anderson Avenue.

1955                 Manhattan celebrates its Centennial. Johnny Kaw legend invented by George Filinger.

1955                 Construction resumes on Tuttle Creek Dam after controversy stopped construction in 1953.

1955                 Present City Hall/Fire Station built; expansion in '97-'98.

1955                 First Infantry Division (established in 1917) moves to Ft. Riley.

1956                 The agency that became Pawnee Mental Health Services begins operation in Riley County.  (Two agencies merged to form Pawnee Mental Health.)

1957     9/28      University Heights housing addition established.

1957     2/7        Rogers addition to Manhattan established.

1957                 Flood control levee system completed; city's cost $169,000.

1958                 Community Chest of Manhattan becomes the United Fund of Manhattan.

1958     2/7        Irwin Army Hospital dedicated.

1959     7/4        Closure Ceremony at Tuttle Creek Dam site.  The course of the Blue River redirected through Tuttle Creek control tower outlet tubes.

1959                 Kansas State College becomes Kansas State University.

1960     2/29      Randolph Post Office closed for the building of Tuttle Creek. (Began 1856, reopened 1964.)

1960                 Manhattan population 19,370; K.S.U. enrollment 7,500.

1961     6/24      St. Mary Hospital opens, 104 beds.

1962                 Riley County Hospital's name changed to Memorial Hospital.

1962                 Airport adds new runway.

1963     6/1        Tuttle Creek Dam dedicated.

1963     12/19    Manhattan Country Club fire destroys the clubhouse.

1963                 Westloop Shopping Center established.

1963                 Manhattan Medical Center established.

1963                 New Post Office built at 5th and Leavenworth.

1964                 Plans announced to add 49,500 acres to Ft. Riley, nearly doubling its size.

1965                 Gillett Hotel, northwest corner of 4th and Houston, razed.

1965                 CiCo Park established by city, county, and board of education.

1965     Summer First Infantry Division, Ft. Riley, deployed to Viet Nam.

1966                 Sunrise Cemetery established.

1966                 New KPL building built on southwest corner of 5th and Poyntz.  In 2007, location of the Chamber of Commerce offices.

1966     April     Manhattan Meals on Wheels established.  (Manhattan Mercury articles March 31, 1966, November 20, 1966)

1966     6/8        Manhattan/Riley County tornado injured 58, did $8 million damage, 36 homes destroyed, 136 damaged.

1967                 Riley County Fire District organized.

1968                 City's first industrial park (195 acres) established; attracts McCall Pattern Company.

1968                 K.S.U. Football Stadium built.

1968                 Manhattan becomes 1st Class city.

1868                 Riley County builds its first rural fire stations.

1969                 New public library built at Juliette and Poyntz; later expanded in 1981 and 1997-98.

1969                 Manhattan Country Club burns for the second time.

1970     April     First Division returns to Ft. Riley from Viet Nam (3rd Brigade to Germany.)

1970                 Manhattan population 27,575, K.S.U. enrollment 13,204.

1970                 K.S.U. enrollment tops 16,000 early in decade of the 70s.

1971     April     Last passenger train west makes final stop in Manhattan.

1974                 Manhattan Police Department and Riley County Sheriff became Riley County Law Enforcement Agency.

1974                 Riley County institutes first county wide subdivision zoning regulations.

1975     6/29      Fire at 301-307 Poyntz destroys half a city block. Replaced by Burger King at corner of 3rd & Poyntz.

1976                 City adds 79.53 acres to industrial park.

1976                 Candlewood residential development begins.

1978                 City turns down request to build west side mall on the Johns tract on Seth Child Road.

1978                 United Fund of Manhattan becomes the United Way of Riley County.

1979                 City begins study for downtown redevelopment-eventually to culminate in construction of Manhattan Town Center.

1980                 Manhattan population 32,844.

1981                 Leonardville votes to build a new city offices, shop, fire station and community room.

1981                 Leonardville Senior Citizens group is organized.

1981     4/7        Northfield housing addition established .

1981     8/20      Knoxberry housing addition established.

1984                 Union Pacific Freight depot closes.

1986     6/6        Groundbreaking for Manhattan Town Center mall.

1986                 $2.7 million Quality of Life bond issue passed.  It included parks, linear trail, swimming pool and animal shelter.

1986     4/27      The Bala Park officially opened.  The Bala Park is privately owned by the Williams family, and enjoyed by the public through their permission.

1986                 Luckey High School, Manhattan closes.

1987                 Riley County Comprehensive Land Use Plan adopted.

1987     Oct.      Manhattan Town Center opened with over 40 shops and 2 anchors (Penney's and Dillard's).

1990                 Manhattan population 37,712.

1990                 City expanded from 6,920 acres to present 9,319 with annexation of Grand Mere, Colbert Hills, Sargent, Wyndham Heights, and Meadowland additions.

1990                 Riley County Household Hazardous Waste program receives the first Household Hazardous Waste permit issued by the State of Kansas.

1993                 Flood damages east and southern edges of Manhattan, Hunters Island and Stagg Hill Golf Course.

1993                 Tuttle Creek spillway gates release record 60,000 cubic feet of water per second.

1993                 K-State football, under Coach Bill Snyder, wins nine games, including the Copper Bowl and goes on to "bowl" out the decade.

1994                 City of Manhattan annexes KSU Campus.

1994 - 96          Expansion of railhead at Ft. Riley increases capability to ability to load 400 cars a day.

1996     4/10      First Division Headquarters moved to Germany from Ft. Riley.

1996     Oct.      Marianna Kistler Beach Museum of Art opens on KSU campus.

1996     6/25      Mercy Health Center established. (merger of St. Mary and Memorial Hospitals)

1996                 New bridge built over the Kansas River to replace 1936 Pillsbury Drive viaduct.

1998                 Population of Manhattan 41,318.

1998                 Revamped and enlarged City Hall opened in October.

1999     6/5        Fort Riley once again becomes a Division Headquarters with the reactivation of the 24th Infantry Division (Mech). The 24th Infantry Division (Mech) is the Headquarters for three enhanced Separate Brigades (eSBs) of the Army National Guard.

2005                 Twin Valley Telephone acquires 13 Sprint exchanges, including service in Leonardville, Riley, Bala, and Randolph in Riley County.  Twin Valley is a family owned and locally operated company, in operation since 1947.

2006     1/23      President George W. Bush is a Landon Lecturer

2006     4/18      Vice President Dick Cheney visits Ft. Riley.

2006     8/11      First Infantry Division headquarters returns to Ft. Riley. Major General Kenneth W. Hunzeker, Commander, with General Carter Ham to take charge as Post Commander soon thereafter.

2006     8/26      Kevin Ingram installed as the seventh President of Manhattan Christian College.

2006      9/8       John Hofmeister, President of Shell Oil and a KSU graduate presents a Landon Lecture.

2006     11/9      Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld is a Landon Lecturer.

2006                 Downtown Redevelopment- Fourth Street Redevelopment begun by Dial Corporation.  Best Buy opens.

2007     7/31      General Durbin becomes commanding General of the Fort Riley.  He is also commander of the First Infantry Division.

2007     11/11    Dedication of the new Cemetery at Ft. Riley.

2007     11/6      New headquarters for the First Infantry Division ribbon cutting.

2007     12/10    Ice storm knocks out power to much of Riley County, damages trees and utility lines.

2007                 New Riley County shops open at 6215 Tuttle Creek Blvd., northwest of Manhattan.

2007                 Brad Schoen appointed Director of the Riley County Police Department by the Riley County Law Board.  Steve French served as interim Director after the retirement of Mike Watson in June 2007.

2008     6/2        Softball-size hail falls in Riley County in a swath from Ogden to Manhattan, causing severe damage to property.

2008     6/11      Tornado destroys homes and businesses and damages many buildings, including some KSU buildings.

2009     4/15      Major General Vince Brooks becomes Commanding General of Ft. Riley.

2009     6/15      Kirk H. Schulz becomes President of Kansas State University.  Selected in February 2009 and inaugurated September 23, 2009.